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Among them was the following: If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is God in truth, and therefore that the holy virgin is the mother of God, for she bore in a fleshly way the Word of God become flesh, let him be anathema. xxv of Bk. He supported his uncle in the removal of St. John Chrysostom as archbishopof Constantinople, although this was justified as an administrative, not doctrinal, issue, as later Cyril supported John's return as when he contrasted Nestorius' unorthodoxy to Chrysostom's purity of doctrine to the im… On-line books store on Z-Library | B–OK. His mother’s brother, Theophilus, was a priest who rose to the powerful position of "pope" (patriarch) of Alexandria. His writings and his theology have remained an important part of the tradition of the Church Fathers to this day. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie . Thus, the…. This reply, the latest of ancient Christian apologetic works against paganism, also preserves significant extracts from Julian’s works. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Assumption of Mary Church Fresco 14.jpg 792 × 613; 255 KB. Cyril at this point had no answer to a letter he had written to Celestine asking "whether the holy synod should receive a man (Nestorius) who condemned what it preached." For some time Cyril was opposed by Bishop Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Syria; but eventually he reconciled his views with those of Cyril. He was nephew of the patriarch of that city, Theophilus. Socrates describes the events as follows: Cyril, accompanied by an immense crowd of people, going to their synagogues—-for so they call their house of prayer-—took them away from (the synagogues) and drove the Jews out of the city, permitting the multitude to plunder their goods. Cyril's impatience had unfortunate results beyond the exclusion of the delegation from Antioch, for the legates from Rome also had not arrived. Consequently nothing remained but formal procedure to condemn him for heresy. Moreover, if Nestorius would not submit, the pope took it upon himself to place Cyril in charge of Church of Constantinople. For from that time the bishopric of Alexandria went beyond the limits of its sacerdotal functions, and assumed the administration of secular matters. Early in his episcopate, in 412, he expelled the Novatianists from their churches and seized the contents of their sacred treasuries. [3] Some of the tensions between Jews and Christians was prompted by an alleged slaughter of Christians at the hands of Alexandrian Jews who lured Christians into the streets at night claiming that the church was on fire. For this he was strongly criticized by the church historian Socrates of Constantinople: On the third day after the death of Theophilus, Cyril came into possession of the episcopate, with greater power than Theophilus had ever exercised. Nor can Cyril be excused entirely for his followers' brutality in the murder of Hypatia. He is chiefly known for his campaign against Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, whose views on Christ’s nature were to be declared heretical. Armed with a commission to represent Pope Celestine I as well as himself, Cyril convened the council and condemned Nestorius. A critical enquiry, why the blessed Baptist is called by Christ not only a lamp, but burning and shining; on the words, He was the burning lamp. Cyril immediately therefore shut up the churches of the Novatians at Alexandria and took possession of all their consecrated vessels and ornaments; and then stripped their bishop Theopemptus of all that he had.[2]. Cyril may have believed that John did not wish to be present at the trial of his old friend, or that he wished to gain time for him. Papal recognition of Cyril’s council was eventually obtained, however, and Nestorius was banished as a heretic. He sent these sermons to John of Antioch, who was inclined to accept them as evidence of Nestorius' orthodoxy. Cyril received a classical and theological education at Alexandria and was ordained by his uncle. Among these were: Commentaries on the Old Testament, Thesaurus, Discourse Against Arians, Commentary on St. John's Gospel, and Dialogues on the Trinity. wrote to Cyril for further information, having become suspicious of Nestorius for offering hospitality to certain Pelagian clerics whom the pope had condemned. He commissioned Cyril to act with the authority of the Roman See and to admonish Nestorius that unless he would recant within ten days from the receipt of this ultimatum, he would be excommunicated. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Cyril-of-Alexandria, Tradition in Action - Biography of St. Cyril of Alexandria, EarlyChurch.org.uk - Biography of Cyril of Alexandria, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Cyril of Alexandria. He was a central figure in the Council of Ephesus in 431, which led to the deposition of Nestorius as Patriarch of Constantinople. Even when he was right theologically, his attitude toward heretics in general and Nestorius in particular exacerbated controversies beyond the point of no return. His successor, Pope Sixtus III, confirmed the council and attempted to get John of Antioch to anathematize Nestorius. Cyril was named a doctor of the church in 1882. Corrections? Cyril wrote extensively and was a leading protagonist in the Christological controversies of the late-4th and 5th centuries. He had not waited, however, for the arrival of certain bishops from the East, particularly from the see of Antioch, where Nestorius had lived before he became bishop of Constantinople. ), rhetoric and humanities at ages 15 to 20 (393-397), and Christian theology and biblical studies in his 20s (398-402). Black Friday Sale! He seems to have been of an Alexandrian family and was the son of the brother of Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria; if he is the Cyril addressed by Isidore of Pelusium in Ep. He then led the Christians in the violent expulsion of the Jews from Alexandria in 415. The pope, meanwhile. Cyril, on the other hand, came to Ephesus with 50 of his bishops. Doctor of the Church.St. He encouraged Celestine to communicate his opinion on the matter to the bishops of Macedonia and of the East, including Antioch itself. Every thing has been delivered to Me by My Father; and no one knows Who the Son is but the Father; and Who the … The religious argument involved the relation of the divine and human within Jesus Christ. Cyril also ordered all Jews be expelled from the city, which housed one of the largest Jewish communities of the Roman Empire. Cyril of Alexandria was a theologian, bishop, Church Father, and Doctor of the Church. His education showed through his knowledge, in his writings, and his influence on other Christian writers of his day. When they did reach Ephesus, they reconvened the council and condemned Cyril. Theodosius did call the council, but in Ephesus, a city friendly to Cyril. The anthropology (doctrine of humankind) of the Eastern Fathers does not view the individual as an autonomous being but rather implies that communion with God makes the individual fully human. He was nephew of the patriarch of that city, Theophilus. , including Antioch itself party arrived a few days later and power within the Empire... Rose to the powerful position of Pope of Alexandria Cyril was born 378. Reconciled to the Great Oasis of Egypt collect so many equally fiercely raging enemies were expelled Celestine a. Own and composed a letter including 12 theological propositions which Nestorius must join him in anathematizing took it himself. 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