methods of water fluoridation

Water fluoridation is the controlled adjustment of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. These produce organic acids when carbohydrates, especially sugar, are eaten. Sadly this this was simply a comparison of water fluoridation with fluoride from other sources. Optimally Fluoridated Water. [3] Technically, this fluoride does not prevent cavities but rather controls the rate at which they develop. [65] When enough acid is produced to lower the pH below 5.5,[66] the acid dissolves carbonated hydroxyapatite, the main component of tooth enamel, in a process known as demineralization. [19] Major health organizations such as the World Health Organization and FDI World Dental Federation supported water fluoridation as safe and effective. The Australian government states that water fluoridation is the most effective way to achieve fluoride exposure that is community-wide. [15] A systematic review found low-quality evidence to support the practice, but also concluded that further studies were needed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [86][87], The history of water fluoridation can be divided into three periods. [67] When fluoride ions are present in plaque fluid along with dissolved hydroxyapatite, and the pH is higher than 4.5,[66] a fluorapatite-like remineralized veneer is formed over the remaining surface of the enamel; this veneer is much more acid-resistant than the original hydroxyapatite, and is formed more quickly than ordinary remineralized enamel would be. [78] Other agents to prevent tooth decay include antibacterials such as chlorhexidine and sugar substitutes such as xylitol. Griffin SO, Regnier E, Griffin PM, Huntley VN. Concentrations of fluoride in salt range from 90 to 350 mg/kg, with studies suggesting an optimal concentration of around 250 mg/kg. It is recommended by the American Dental Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, US Public Health Service, and World Health Organization. Here, aesthetic concern is a term used in a standardized scale based on what adolescents would find unacceptable, as measured by a 1996 study of British 14-year-olds. Saving Lives, Protecting People, Statement on the Evidence Supporting the Safety and Effectiveness of Community Water Fluoridation, https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/basics/index.htm, https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/research/data-statistics/surgeon-general, https://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/statistics/2016stats.htm, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Dental Care is Safe and Important During Pregnancy, Older Adults and Tooth Loss by Smoking Status, Return on Investment: Healthcare System Savings, Cost Savings of Community Water Fluoridation, Water Fluoridation Guidelines & Recommendations, Surgeons General’s Statements on Community Water Fluoridation, Scientific Reviews and Reports: Assessing the Evidence, Estimating Community Water System Populations, Infographic: Communities Benefit from Water Fluoridation, Fluoridation Statistics — Population Methodology Changes, CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training, Implementation of School Sealant Programs, Infection Prevention & Control in Dental Settings, Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settings, Notes To Reader, Suggested citation, and Introduction, Administrative Measures and Infection Prevention Education Training, Dental Health Care Personnel Safety and Program Evaluation, Risk Assessment, Conclusions, and Source Documents, Appendix A: Infection Prevention Checklist, Appendix A: Infection Prevention Checklist Section II: Direct Observation of Personnel and Patient-Care Practices, Appendix B: Relevant Recommendations Published by CDC since 2003, Appendix C: Selected References and Additional Resources by Topic Area, About the CDC Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health Care Settings—2003, Cleaning & Disinfecting Environmental Surfaces, Dental Handpieces and Other Devices Attached to Air and Waterlines, Service Animals in Dental Health Care Settings, Training: Basic Expectations for Safe Care, Selected References for Infection Prevention & Control by Topic Area, Screening and Evaluating Safer Dental Devices, Water Fluoridation Reporting System Data Stream Infographic, Implementation of Evidence-Based Preventive Interventions, School-Based and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs, Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs, Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes, Dental Caries in Permanent Teeth of Children and Adolescents, Oral Health In America: Summary of the Surgeon General’s Report, CDC Dental Public Health Residency Program, How to Apply to the CDC Dental Public Health Residency Program, Admission Requirements Checklist [PDF – 207 KB], DPHR Program Application [PDF – 237 KB], Healthy People 2020: Oral Health Objectives, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

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